EBOLA what to do
Signs and symptoms
• Secondary symptoms are vomiting, diarrhoea, rash, impaired kidney and liver function, and in certain cases, internal and external bleeding.
• Those suffering from EVD also record Low white blood cell and platelet counts and elevated liver enzymes.
• Although victims may appear healthy, they are still infectious as long as their blood and secretions contain the virus. Men who have recovered from the disease can still transmit the virus through their semen for up to 7 weeks after recovery.
25 percent fever patients are affected with Chikungunya disease
In Dhaka’s Dohar and Chapainababgang’s Shibgang, 25 to 30 percent people suffering from fever are chikungunya patients. In some places, the amount of people is even higher than this. IEDCR (Institute of Epidemiology, Diseases Control & Research) announced this information last Monday.
Mahmudur Rahman, Director of IEDCR, told Prothom Alo on Sunday, IEDCR collected samples of blood from affected patients in Dohar’s Chorkushai and Chapainababgang’s Shibgang, and tested the samples. Among these people, 25 to 30 percent were found to be affected with chikungunya. Till now, blood samples of 52 people were tested, among whom chikungunya was detected in 31 people. The number of affected people in Dohar was higher.
IEDCR said that the disease occurs from mosquito bites. Every place in the country is at risk of chikungunya. IEDCR said that health officials in 200 Upazila are receiving training on chikungunya disease. Specialists said that chikungunya disease is virus borne. Aedes mosquito carries the chikungunya virus. Just like dengue, Aedes mosquitoes bite during the day time and spread this disease. The affected person will have high fever, joint pain, headache, and will feel cold or like vomiting. Even though patients with this disease will not die, many of them lose their ability to work for a long time.
Director of Disease Control, Health & Family Welfare Ministry, Prof. Benazir Ahmed told Prothom Alo that to prevent chikungunya disease, it is essential to clean up any place where water is trapped.
Source: Prothom Alo
Posted: November 28, 2011
All You Need to Know About Chikungunya fever
Chikungunya fever is a viral illness that is spread by the bites of infected mosquitoes. Chikungunya fever typically lasts from five to seven days and frequently causes severe and often incapacitating joint pain which sometimes persists for much longer periods, but it is rarely life-threatening.
There is no specific treatment for the disease, but analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication may be used to reduce the pain and swelling. Aspirin should be avoided.
There is no vaccine against this virus, so preventive measures depend entirely on avoiding mosquito bites which occur mainly during the daytime, and eliminating mosquito breeding sites.
To avoid mosquito bites:
• Wear clothes that cover as much skin as possible.
• Use mosquito repellents on exposed skin and on clothing in accordance with label instructions.
• Use mosquito nets to protect babies, older and sick people and others who rest during the day. The effectiveness of mosquito nets can be improved by treating them with WHO-recommended insecticides.
• Use mosquito coils and insecticide vaporizers during the daytime.
Mosquitoes that transmit Chikungunya virus breed in a wide variety of rain-filled containers which are common around human dwellings and workplaces, such as water storage containers, saucers under potted plants and drinking bowls for domestic animals, as well as discarded tyres and food containers.
To reduce mosquito breeding:
• Remove discarded containers from around the house.
• For containers that are in use, turn them over or empty every 3–4 days to prevent mosquito breeding including any water-filled containers indoors. Alternatively, completely cover them to keep out mosquitoes.
What you should know about Nipah Virus Encephalitis
The government of Bangladesh has confirmed the disease that claimed at least 25 people (as of 7 Feb 2011) in Lalmonirhat and Rangpur districts in the last few days as Nipah encephalitis, caused by Nipah virus.
A common symptom of the disease is high fever accompanied by headache and vomiting. The disease causes inflammation of the brain.
Bats are the natural hosts of the virus. Doctors have advised caution while drinking raw date juice as bats usually drink date juice at night, but boiled date juice can be taken. The disease can pass from human to human, though the rate of such infection is low. Taking precautions, such as washing hands after coming into contact with an infected person, has been advised. People are also advised not to use patient’s bed, and to wash patient’s clothes separately. Patient’s spit, cough and excreta should also be dumped into the ground.
Nipah was first reported in the country in 2001. A total of 152 people have been infected by the disease from 2001 to January 31, 2011. Of the infected, 113 people died. In Bangladesh, two types of encephalitis – Japanese and Nipah – are common in the country.
The case fatality (the percentage of people who got the disease and did not survive) rate of the Nipah virus in Bangladesh is 75 percent. No vaccine against the disease has yet been developed, but the fatality can be reduced through symptom control or general management.
Posted: 7 February, 2011
All You Need to Know about Anthrax
On 5 September 2010, the Government of Bangladesh has issued a red alert across the country over an outbreak of anthrax spread to six districts. The first case of anthrax was detected in Sirajganj on 20 August 2010, and it has spread to 11 districts including Pabna, Tangail, Kushtia and Meherpur and Panchagarh. As of Thursday, 16 September 2010, at least 523 people have been affected by anthrax across the country while at least 43 animals died of the disease. The government has vaccinated some 200,000 cattle in the affected areas of Sirajganj and Pabna districts soon after the outbreak, while another 500,000 vaccines were sent to various parts of the country to cope with the disease. Although infected persons are being treated, the disease is still spreading in different parts of the country.
What Is Anthrax?
Anthrax is a serious infectious disease caused by the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. The disease commonly affects herbivorous mammals, including cows, sheep and goats, which ingest or inhale the bacterium while grazing. Humans who come in contact with these infected animals or ingest their meat can become infected with anthrax. Infections in humans most often involve the skin, gastrointestinal tract and lungs. However, anthrax does not spread from human to human.
What are the symptoms of Anthrax?
Anthrax can be deadly if not treated immediately. Symptoms can appear within 7 days of coming in contact with the bacterium. The symptoms (warning signs) of anthrax are different depending on the type of infection:
• Skin: The first symptom is a small sore that develops into a blister. The blister then develops into a skin ulcer with a black area in the centre. The sore, blister and ulcer do not hurt.
• Gastrointestinal Tract: The first symptoms are nausea, loss of appetite, bloody diarrhoea, and fever, followed by bad stomach pain.
• Lungs: The first symptoms are like cold or flu symptoms and can include a sore throat, mild fever and muscle aches. Later, symptoms include cough, chest discomfort, shortness of breath, tiredness and muscle aches.
How is Anthrax Treated?
Anthrax can easily be cured if timely and correctly diagnosed. Antibiotics like ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, penicillin, work quite well against anthrax. Human vaccine is available but it is less effective and causes side effects.
What Should I Do if I Think I Have Anthrax?
If you have been exposed to anthrax or are showing symptoms of anthrax infection, call your health-care provider right away.
How can Anthrax be prevented?
The incidence of anthrax can be prevented by being cautious and taking prompt measures:
• Antibiotics are recommended to prevent anthrax infection in anyone exposed to infected animals
• Infected animals should be kept isolated under constant observation and treatment
• Dead animals should be disposed of properly
• Healthy animals should be vaccinated with anthrax vaccinations
• Contact with and consumption of infected animals should be avoided
• Public awareness about anthrax should be increased
Monitoring, proper medication and better public awareness can easily help control the spread of anthrax.
Centers for Disease Control & Prevention http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/anthrax/
The Daily Star http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/topic/anthrax
Posted: 19 September, 2010